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【中英双语】美国有世界上最好的大学,为什么国人教育差

更新:2020-09-29 23:04:23  |  来源:转载  |  阅读:0
标签:大学美国教育

Joshua Gross, Assistant Professor of Computer Science at CSUMB
Answered October 26, 2019
When I was a kid, stereotypes were used heavily in humor, and stereotypes of people from foreign countries were especially common. Japanese people always had cameras, German people were gruff, French people were rude. Americans were fat, lazy, messy, loud, and uneducated.

Joshua Gross, CSUMB计算机科学助理教授:
在我小时候,很多刻板印象经常被拿来开玩笑,对外国人的刻板印象尤其普遍。比如日本人都有相机,德国人脾气大,法国人很粗鲁,美国人肥胖、懒惰、邋遢、吵闹、没有文化。

If you look at standardized exams for other countries, they emphasize rigor. However, that’s their focus: rigor. Not creative or lateral thinking. Not critical thinking. Not problem solving. Japanese students have been demonstrated to know more about US geography than American students in some random tests, and that’s frustrating, but memorizing geographical facts has little bearing on life. Students in many Asian countries are required to rapidly perform multicolumn multiplication, but they don’t demonstrate a deeper understanding of arithmetic reasoning than American students; they just learn useful ways to perform calculations.

你可以看看其他国家的标准化考试,他们强调严谨性。然而,那就是他们的重点:严谨。没有创造性、横向思维,没有批判性思维,不解决问题。在一些随机测试中,日本学生对美国地理的了解超过了美国学生,这确实令人沮丧,但记住地理对生活没什么用。许多亚洲国家的学生被要求快速地计算多项乘法,但他们对运算推理的理解并不比美国学生深刻,他们只是学了一些有用的计算方法。

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【国外网民评论翻译】:

Claire Jordan
Here in the UK, students at secondary school are expected to show the level of creative thinking which I’m told (repeatedly) is expected in the US in the second year of university, or even post-grad.

在英国,中学生应该表现出创造性思维的水平,而我再三被告知,在美国,大学二年级甚至是研究生阶段达到这种水平就行了。



Heidi Cool, Born and raised in the United States, but have also traveled beyond.
People say that education is not as good in the U.S. as in many other countries because our students (on average) lag behind other countries on the PISA and similar tests. U.S. academic achievement lags that of many other countries. Our students score lower than their peers in science, math and reading.

Heidi Cool, 在美国出生长大,去过很多地方:
人们说美国的教育水平不如其他许多国家,是因为我们的学生在PISA和类似考试中落后于其他国家,美国的学术成就落后于许多其他国家,我们的学生在科学、数学和阅读方面的成绩低于其他国家学生。

Naturally there are many different factors in play, but the end result is that some students in the U.S. are quite well-educated, some are under-educated and many fall somewhere in between. Students who are well-educated will have been able to take many advanced classes in secondary school and will be well prepared to attend the better universities and colleges, or follow other paths in relation to their interests/talents. Students who are under-educated may struggle with basic writing and math skills.

当然,还有其他的影响因素,但最终的结果是,美国的一些学生受教育水平很高,一些不行,还有一些处于中间。受教育水平高的学生能够在中学参加许多高级课程,并为进入更好的大学和学院做好充分准备。受教育水平低的学生可能会在基本的写作和数学技能方面遇到困难。

American culture celebrates individuality and reaching for the stars. The “American Dream” trope looms large here, the idea that through hard work and risk-taking, one can achieve greatness. The concept of average doesn’t seem popular here. I also think this is why we have an obsession with celebrities too.

美国文化崇尚个性、推崇闪耀。“美国梦”的理念熠熠生辉,通过努力工作和冒险,个人可以取得伟大的成就。这里不热衷于平均的概念。我认为这也是我们对名人痴迷的原因。

US education isn’t horrible, but it’s certainly not good either. I would say it’s mediocre to subpar. They tend to get fairly average and below average in math results despite spending more than other developed countries. Some of it has to do with child poverty; I’ve seen estimates that up to 70% of a child’s academic success is related to non-school factors.

美国的教育并不差,但肯定也不好。我觉得是平均水平或之下。尽管美国的教育投入高于其他发达国家,但数学成绩相当一般或低于平均水平。这其中,一部分原因是儿童贫困,我看过一份评估,孩子的学习成绩70%与校外因素有关。

Another cause is that America doesn’t really have an intellectual culture. People want to be known as smart, but don’t actually want to put the hard work into learning. Hence, having a prestigious degree may be highly regarded, but intellectual topics are rarely subjects of conversation or entertainment. Sports are also a huge thing, and in some communities seem to confer higher social status than academic success - I saw a high school in Texas spent nearly $100 million on a stadium.

另一个原因是,美国真的没有智慧文化。人们希望被夸赞聪明,但实际上并不想努力学习。因此,拥有名牌学位也许能得到重视,但智力方面的话题很少是交谈、娱乐的主题。体育运动也是一件大事,在一些社区里,体育运动的社会地位似乎高于学术成就——我看到德克萨斯州的一所高中花了近1亿美元建了一座体育场。

I don’t really seeing us able to reform our way out of these problems anytime soon. I would make changes to education to try to make it more efficient and focused, but fighting this intellectual apathy would be hard.

我真的不认为我们在短期内能解决这些问题。我们能让教育更高效、更集中,但要克服人们对待智慧的冷漠却很难。



Hans Arndt, President at Cellar Door Solutions Inc (2019-present)
Like all things American, the problem isn't at the margins, its in the center. America's top students have access to the best schools in the world. They are given access to the best educational tools available and are showered with the best funding that America has to offer.
Hans Arndt:

就像美国的所有事情一样,问题不在边缘,而是在中心。美国的尖子生能进入到世界上最好的学校,他们可以获得最好的教育资源。

America's lowest performing students are also given lots of resources; they are put in ESE classes with only 15 students per room. The educational system creates loopholes and easy tests to keep these students to continue moving up grades. They require teachers to slow down their curriculums to make sure these students keep from falling behind others. This comes at a cost.

美国表现最差的学生也得到了很多资源;他们被安排在ESE班,每个教室只有15名学生。教育系统制定了简单的考试,保证这些学生能继续升学。还要求教师放慢课程,确保这些差生不会落后于其他学生。然而这是漏洞,是有代价的。

The students in the middle are the ones who suffer. They are the forgotten ones. Too smart to be given a leg up but not smart enough to be given additional resources. Many of them are not compelled to work hard, and the classes they do take have been slowed down to accommodate the ESE students. The administration doesn't put emphasis on parents involvement, and are quick to blame the teacher for the students misbehaving. This creates a culture of mediocrity for those caught in the middle. America's failure is concentrated on the middle 60%.

中间的学生就受罪了。他们是被遗忘的人。他们很聪明,无法享受差生的资源,但又不够聪明,无法获得尖子生的资源。他们中的许多人不必努力学习,他们所上的课程也被放慢了速度以适应ESE班的学生。政府不强调家长的参与,轻易的将将学生的不良行为归咎于老师。这创造了一种平庸文化,而中间的学生身处其间。美国的失败就集中在这中间的60%。

For elementary education (ages 5–18):
In rich neighborhoods, education is high-quality since they get a lot of funding. In poor neighborhoods, education tends to be poorly-funded and the students have many social issues to deal with (poverty, poor nutrition, lack of fathers at home, parents working two jobs, medical issues, overcrowding, etc.) that get in the way of their education.

基础教育(5-18岁):
在富裕的社区,教育的质量很高,因为他们能得到很多资金。在贫穷的社区,资金往往不足,学生们要面对很多社会问题,贫困、营养不良、父亲不在家、父母做两份工、医疗问题、家里拥挤等等,这些都会影响他们的教育。
For higher education (ages 18+):

Public colleges vary widely in quality, from adequate to excellent. Private for-profit colleges tend to be of very poor quality. Private non-profit colleges also vary widely in quality, from adequate to world-class (like MIT and Yale).

高等教育(18岁以上):
公立大学的质量相差很大,从合格到优秀。私立营利性大学的质量往往很差。私立非营利性大学的质量相差也很大,从合格到世界一流(如麻省理工和耶鲁)。



Dahn Shaulis, Higher Education Watchdog
The US higher education system’s colleges vary a great deal in quality, from elite private colleges (e.g. Harvard, Yale, Stanford, MIT, Georgetown) and state flagship universities (e.g. University of Michigan, Wisconsin) to “subprime colleges” that prey on working families, including military service members, veterans, women, and people of color.

Dahn Shaulis,高等教育监督
美国高等教育系统的大学质量相差很大,从精英私立大学(如哈佛、耶鲁、斯坦福、麻省理工、乔治敦)到州立旗舰大学(如密歇根大学、威斯康辛大学)到“次级学院”,以工薪家庭为生,包括军人、退伍军人、妇女,以及有色人种。

These subprime colleges include University of Phoenix, Purdue University Global (formerly Kaplan University), DeVry, Colorado Tech and American Intercontinental University, Strayer University, and Ashford University.

次级学院包括凤凰城大学、普度大学(前卡普兰大学)、德弗里大学、科罗拉多理工大学和美国洲际大学、斯特雷耶大学和阿什福德大学。

In terms of higher education accountability, the US is decentralized and lacking in resources. Both the US Department of Education and private accreditors have set a very low bar for oversight.

在高等教育的责任方面,美国将权力下放,而且缺乏资源。美国教育部和私人认证机构的监督门槛都非常低。



Anonymous
The first thing I learned in middle school: to stop guys from making sexual comments towards you, you have to curse and be catty.
First thing that comes to my mind from school: y=mx+b, 206 bones in the body, I don't remember anything about taxes, French revolution started all of it, Romeo and Juliet fans were the first 'emo' Bois.

匿名:
我在中学学到的第一件事是:阻止男同学对你发表性评论,你必须骂回去,表现得尖刻。
关于学校,首先映入我脑海的就是:y=mx+b,人体有206块骨头,我不记得任何关于税收的事,法国大革命开启了一切…

I was out of school for a week once. Only one teacher gave me an extension on homework I missed.
I know more about drugs than I should. Someone did drugs next to me once, then gave his friend some.

有一次,我离校一星期,只有一位老师给我延期交作业的机会。
我对毒品的了解超过了我应该了解的程度。曾经有人在我旁边吸毒,还分了一些给他的朋友。

I do online school now, and still have to show up to a different place and it's a lot better. I'm happier staying home alone then being in school.
Just to clarify, I was sexually harassed in school when I was 12. Twice. I learned about different types of drugs when I was 12. I got asked if I wanted to have sex when I was 12. I didn't learn anything until I went to highschool, when I was 14, which was algrebra. I've learned the same thing in English from 12 years old to now, 15.

我现在在网上上学,还要在不同的地方上,但比去学校好多了。我一个人呆在家里比在学校里更愉快。
我12岁时在学校受到过性骚扰,两次。我12岁时就了解了各种毒品。12岁的时候有人问我想不想做爱。14岁之前我什么也没学到,直到上了高中,那是阿尔格雷布拉高中。从12岁到现在我15岁,学到的英语都是一样的东西。

The main problem is the lack of respect between everyone. Going to school sucks because of the atmosphere and kids act out because they're treated like kids. Teachers become mean because they've had enough of kids acting out.
Some schools are good. The ones that require applications. Or money. If your an outsider looking in, it may look good. Once you get inside and learn how it works as a student, it's not as good. Students are at the bottom, anyone can yell at them and they're expected to still be respectful.

主要的问题是人们缺乏尊重。上学很难受,因为学校的氛围不好,孩子们都孩子气。老师变得刻薄,因为他们受够了孩子们的行为。

有些学校很好,但需要申请,或者有钱才行。如果你是一个外人朝里看,也许看着不错,一旦你进入其中,作为学生了解它的时候,它就不那么好了。学生处于最底层,任何人都可以对他们大喊大叫,而他们还要保持尊重。

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