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【中英双语】东西方文化中工作与生活平衡的差异

更新:2020-12-03 20:56:17  |  来源:转载  |  阅读:0
标签:工作差异文化

When it comes to work-life balance, Asian and Western cultures usually have different ways of discovering it.

当涉及到工作与生活的平衡时,亚洲和西方文化通常有不同的方式来表现它。

东西方文化中工作与生活平衡的差异

For many years here in Australia, I’ve juggled working a day job, chasing a writing career and making time for things on the personal and home front. Sometimes it feels like I’ve got too many things work and play-wise to do.

在澳大利亚的许多年里,我一直在平衡着日常工作、追求写作事业和腾出时间处理个人和家庭事务之间的关系。有时候我觉得我有太多的事情要做,要工作,也要玩乐。

Finding a work-life balance is arguably about juggling needs and wants. Finding a work-life balance often means organising time for things you want to do, and have to do whether you like it or not because it may impact the former and vice-versa – and trying to discover that ever elusive feeling called satisfaction all round.

找到工作与生活的平衡可以说就是要平衡需求与欲望。找到工作与生活的平衡通常意味着为你想做的事情安排时间,并且无论你喜欢与否都必须去做,因为这可能会影响前者,反之亦然——努力去发现一种难以捉摸的被称为全面满足感的感觉。

In Asian cultures, there seems to be a strong focus on working to make a living. It’s not uncommon to hear of longer working hours in the corporate world in Asia compared to the Western world. In 2016, UK-based B2B marketplace Expert Market looked at 71 city hubs around the world: those in the 10 lowest work-life balance cities (Dubai, Bangkok, Hong Kong) work over 2,000 hours per year in the office, whereas those in the top 10 cities which are all European cities work around 1,600 hours per year.

在亚洲文化中,似乎非常注重为谋生而工作。与西方国家相比,亚洲公司的工作时间更长的现象并不罕见。2016年,英国的B2B市场专家观察了71个世界各地的城市:排名最低的10个城市(包括迪拜、曼谷、香港),每年在办公室工作超过2000小时,而在排名最高的10个欧洲城市,每年工作1600小时。

Similarly, not-for-profit organisation Catalyst surveyed 1,834 multinational female and male employees across South-East Asia and found 64% of them stressed the importance of furthering fledging careers. Commonly among Asian cultures, working hard to attain job security and earning one’s own stripes – by showing up and doing the work – are markers of professional achievement, pride and status.

同样,非营利性组织Catalyst在东南亚地区调查了1834名跨国公司的男女员工,发现64%的人都强调了开发新技能的重要性。通常在亚洲文化中,努力工作以获得工作保障和获得自己的地位是足以自豪的。

Doing things now is my motto. If it’s possible, I’ll get things done right now, ASAP, way ahead before deadlines at work – even if I don’t like what my boss gave me to do. To me, this is a good use of time: show up to work, finish things now, move on to something else at work or go home.

现在就开始做是我的座右铭。如果可能的话,即使我并不喜欢老板给我的工作任务,我也会立即、尽快地在截止日期之前完成这些任务。对我来说,这是一个很好的时间利用方式:上班,尽快完成工作,可以开始做别的事或回家。

In Western cultures there seems to be more of a focus on looking after one’s health and well-being on the job. While sick leave entitlement is the norm across the world, it’s those in the Western world who are more likely to use it. A study by PwC shows Australians take the most ‘sickies’ a year at 10 days (some using these days for non-legitimate reasons), with those in the UK taking an average of 9.1 sick days and in Asia 2.2 days.

在西方文化中,人们似乎更注重在工作中关注自己的健康和幸福。虽然在世界各地,请病假是一种常态,但在西方国家,请病假的人更多。普华永道的一项研究显示,澳大利亚人平均每年请病假10天(有些人是出于非正当原因使用这些假期),英国人平均请9.1天,而亚洲人平均请2.2天。

Then there is also personal, maternity and compassionate kinds of leave (varying across the world), and many of us take them when we have to. No matter who we are, sometimes we work because we have and want to. But sometimes we simply can’t because other parts of life calls with stronger conviction.

此外还有事假、产假和体恤假(世界各地各有不同),我们中的许多人在必要的时候会休这些假。不管我们是谁,有时候我们工作是因为我们拥有和想要工作,但有时我们就是做不到,因为这时我们对生活的其他方面有更热切的想法。

The Western world seems more enthusiastic about taking time off work to enjoy doing what they want. Office workers in New York, Sydney, Moscow and Helsinki take more than 25 days of vacation days on average a year, while 15 vacation days is more common in Jakarta, Taipei, China and Bangkok.

西方世界似乎更热衷于抽出时间来做自己想做的事情。纽约、悉尼、莫斯科和赫尔辛基的上班族平均每年有超过25天的假期,雅加达、台北、北京和曼谷的上班族平均每年有15天的假期。

Notably, how much annual leave one gets to take at a stretch depends on individual job requirements and whether it’s peak period in the industry one works in. Some of us might work multiple jobs or do shift work, for instance work in a café by day and club by night – which might mean keeping both jobs to make ends meet may be more important than taking an extended vacation.

值得注意的是,一个人可以连续休多少年假取决于个人的工作要求以及是否处于所从事行业的高峰期。我们中的一些人可能做多份工作,或者做轮班工作,比如白天在咖啡馆工作,晚上在俱乐部工作——这可能意味着做两份工作来维持收支平衡可能比休长假更重要。

For around three years after finishing university, I worked contract and casual jobs. These kinds of jobs didn’t come with leave entitlements but once I finished up a contract, there was time before the next one. One could call this my ‘gap years’, which is usually defined as taking a break in between studies; it’s something many Australians like to do. In between jobs, I drafted my first book and got this blog going. Living life this way, I felt like my own boss – much to the excitement of my friends who thought it cool to be a blogger with a bit of a following, and much to the disappointment of my Chinese-Malaysian parents who kept telling me over and over to get a ‘proper job’ to set myself up.

大学毕业后的三年里,我做了一些合同工和临时工。这类工作没有休假的权利,但一旦我完成了一份合同,在我开始下一份合同之前就有时间了。你可以把这段时间称为我的“间隔期”,通常定义为在学习之间休息一段时间;这是许多澳大利亚人喜欢做的事情。在工作之余,我撰写了我的第一本书,并开设了这个博客。过着这样的生活,我感觉自己就像自己的老板——这让我的朋友们兴奋不已,他们认为写博客很酷,还能有一些粉丝。但这让我的马来西亚华人父母很失望,他们一遍又一遍地告诉我要找一份“合适的工作”。

How hard one decides to work or play depends on what they want out of life. For instance, today many employees in Singapore value work-life balance more: millennials here want to travel and spend weekends doing non-work activities. On the other hand, these days more and more Australians work overtime and more prefer payment over time in lieu – finding it harder to achieve a work-life balance.

一个人决定努力工作还是娱乐取决于他们想从生活中得到什么。例如,如今新加坡的许多员工更看重工作与生活的平衡:这里的千禧一代想去旅行,周末做一些与工作无关的活动。而相反,如今越来越多的澳大利亚人超时工作,更倾向于按时间获取报酬,很难实现工作与生活的平衡。

Most of the time we need reasons to live ‘life’ if we were to get away from the fair bit of hours we put in in the office. We might work certain hours or days so we can care for someone. Or study to better our skills on the job or elsewhere. Or take part in cultural occasions. What might be ‘work’ to someone might not be ‘work’ to others, and the same thing can be said about ‘life’.

大多数时候,如果我们想要避免在办公室里投入的大量时间,我们需要找些理由来过“生活”。我们可能会工作特定的时间或天数,这样我们就可以说我需要照顾某人,或去学习以提高我们的工作或其他方面的技能,或参加文化活动。对某些人来说可能是“工作”,但对另一些人来说可能不是“工作”,“生活”也是如此。

On the other hand, some of us might prefer work and play to be distinct: show up to a routine day job we might have half a heart for, turn up to practice passion elsewhere after hours. Two different worlds, two different worlds to learn from whether we like them or not.

另一方面,我们中的一些人可能希望工作和娱乐是截然不同的:去做一份我们可能不太喜欢的日常工作,下班后通过其他的方式寻找快乐。两个不同的世界,两种不同的人生,无论我们喜欢与否,都可以从中学习到一些经验。

The notion of ‘balance’ is subjective. The Oxford Dictionary defines balance as a ‘situation where elements are in harmonious proportion, and presence of mental and emotional stability’. However, nothing is perfect and so ‘balance’ is arguably an elusive illusion, and so is satisfaction too as we go after the shadow of perfection. Entrepreneur William Vanderbloemen suggests our life happens in seasons, in work-life rhythms. Some moments will be better than others. Almost anything that we do work or play-wise might turn out how we never imagined. As author Alain de Botton said:

“平衡”的概念是主观的。《牛津词典》对平衡的定义是“元素比例协调,精神和情绪稳定的状态”。然而,没有什么是完美的,所以“平衡”可以说是一种难以捉摸的幻觉,当我们追求完美和满足时也是如此。企业家威廉.范德布洛曼认为,我们的生活是四季更替的,是工作与生活的节奏。有些时刻会比其他时刻更好。我们在工作或娱乐方面所做的几乎所有事情都可能变成我们从未想象过的样子。正如作家阿兰.德.波顿所说:

‘There is no such thing as work-life balance. Everything worth fighting for unbalances your life.’

工作与生活的平衡是不存在的。任何值得你为之奋斗的东西都会扰乱你的生活。

At different times of our lives, we’ll have different priorities, different definitions of success and so different wants and needs. Working full-time I get to afford to eat and pay the bills and learn how the world works and how people think. Writing, which is something I never fail to look forward to, I get to reflect on what I’ve come across and express how I truly feel and figure out how to make things and most importantly other people feel better.

在我们生命的不同阶段,我们会有不同的优先事项,不同的成功定义,不同的愿望和需求。全职工作可以让我吃得起饭,付得起账单,学习这个世界是如何运作的,人们是如何思考的。写作,这是我一直都很期待的事情,我可以反思我所经历的,表达我真实的感受,并找出如何让事情,最重要的是让别人感觉更好的方法。

There’s meaning in everything you do if you commit to it, work or play, like it or not.Do you juggle work and play well?

不管你喜不喜欢,无论你是投入到工作还是娱乐中,你做的每件事都是有意义的。你能兼顾工作和娱乐吗?



【国外网民评论翻译】:

litadoolan
Thank you so much for writing this post. It is helpful. I share your early ambition to be a radio host! I like the hopeful quote ” ‘What might be ‘work’ to someone might not be ‘work’ to others, and the same thing can be said about ‘life’. ” but I see there are two ways of looking at it.. you can do a proper job and then look forward to doing your writing or you can use your passion to do work you love and embrace the struggle that comes with it. and maybe hop between the both.

非常感谢你写这篇文章。它是有帮助的。我和你一样,从小就想当电台主持人!我喜欢这句充满希望的话:“‘对某些人来说可能是‘工作’的东西,对另一些人来说可能不是‘工作’,‘生活’也是如此。”但我认为有两种方式来看待这个问题……你可以做好一份像样的工作,然后期待着去写作,或者你可以用你的激情去做你喜欢的工作,接受随之而来的挣扎。也许也可以在两者之间进行切换。



Mabel Kwong
I will always remember my time in community radio fondly… and I am guessing you will too There’s just something very intimate and personal about working in radio, which I might share more of at some point.
I agree. Maybe we can hop between both work and passion, or do one or the other. The choice is ours and either way, often we can’t have our cake and eat it. It isn’t always a bad thing and in the end, we will probably learn to appreciate what we have.

我将永远怀念我在社区电台的时光…我猜你也会这样。在电台工作有一些非常私密和私人的东西,我可能在某个时候会分享更多的故事。
我同意你的观点。也许我们可以在工作和激情之间来回切换,或者只选择其中之一。选择是我们自己做出的,无论哪种方式,我们都不能鱼与熊掌兼得。这并不总是一件坏事,最终,我们可能会学会珍惜我们所拥有的。



Bama
Work-life balance, however elusive it might sound, has become my priority since the last few years. As you said, in Asian culture those who work hard and long hours are often perceived to be better than those who leave the office on time. The problem is, as I can attest based on my experience, many people spend their time at work inefficiently. They have unnecessarily long meetings, work in the way that often takes too much time, and so on. And in the past I often found myself trapped in such situations.
I came across some articles that helped me to be more brave to speak up my mind, about how one’s contribution at work shouldn’t be measured by how long he/she works, but how efficient he/she finishes all the tasks given to him/her. Sometimes I wonder why not many people take the Nordic model as an example. I read that in Denmark people are trusted to do a good job so they can leave the office on time. Those who stay longer for no reason are often frowned upon for everyone else has friends, family, pets, or hobbies to look forward to being engaged with after work.

工作与生活的平衡,听起来可能很难实现,但从过去几年开始,它已经成为我的首要任务。正如你所说,在亚洲文化中,那些努力工作、长时间工作的人通常被认为比那些按时下班的人更优秀。问题是,根据我的经验,许多人在工作中效率低下。他们有不必要的长时间会议,太浪费时间的工作方式等等。在过去,我经常发现自己陷入这样的境地。

我看到了一些文章,这些文章让我更加勇敢地说出我的想法,一个人对工作的贡献不应该以他工作的时间长短来衡量,而应该以他完成所有交给他的任务的效率来衡量。有时我想知道为什么没有很多人以北欧模式为榜样。我读到过,在丹麦,做好工作,按时下班的人会被信任,那些无缘无故呆久一点的人通常会被人嫌弃,因为其他人下班后都有朋友、家人、宠物或爱好等着他们。



Mabel Kwong
Working inefficiency is something that happens, definitely agree with you on that one. At many workplaces I’ve been, I’ve seen many a long meeting…and you wonder if it’s all talk, no action quite often.
The Nordic model of work sounds like an interesting one. Work and play can compliment each other, so it’s important to make time for both.

工作效率低下是经常发生的事情,我完全同意你的观点。在我去过的很多工作场所,我见过很多长时间的会议……你甚至会想,是不是经常都是光说不做。

北欧的工作模式听起来很有趣。工作和娱乐是互补的,所以为两者调配时间是很重要的。



Kally
Well said and I couldn’t agree more on your points. Somehow Asians seem to need to work themselves like a bull, its like if the work is not hard and suffering then it is not work and the salary is not hard earned money.

我非常同意你的观点。从某种程度上说,亚洲人似乎需要像公牛一样工作,就好像如果工作不辛苦、不吃苦,那么它就不是工作,工资也不是自己辛苦挣来的。



Mabel Kwong
You don’t know how much I love this comment, my friend. Thank you so much. It was so well thought out and phrased You are so right in saying that work-life balance is a controversial topic, and very happy for you that you are happy with how much you put in with work and personal life. ‘Work fuels my passions outside of it. ‘ You summed it up so well, so much that I ever did! Each part our life usually fuels the other parts. At times life is give and take, and some moments will challenge us much more.
Agreed that circumstances personal preferences and also presonality impacts how we work and play, how we organise and spend our time. But definitely agree health and happiness is the most important. Maybe simplicity really is the key.

你不知道我有多喜欢这个评论,我的朋友。非常感谢。这个评论很有深度。你说工作与生活的平衡是一个有争议的话题是非常正确的,真为你高兴,你在工作和个人生活中投入了很多。“工作激发了我的热情。“你总结得太好了,我从来没有这样做过!我们生命中的每一部分通常都是其他部分的动力。生活有时需要付出和索取,而有些时刻会给我们带来更大的挑战。

我同意环境、个人偏好以及现实情况会影响我们的工作、娱乐方式和花费时间的方式。但我绝对同意健康和幸福才是最重要的。也许简单才是关键。



balroop2013
Mabel, you have brilliantly brought out the difference between work-life balance in eastern and western cultures. While there is a thin line between work and other commitments of life, how we handle both aspects depends on our temperament and attitude to life. Often imbalance tests our capabilities and it is quite challenging to keep the balance especially with little children and goals of success. We may be having different priorities but family demands cannot be ignored.

你出色地阐释了东西方文化中工作与生活平衡的差异。虽然工作和生活只有一线之隔,但我们如何处理这两个方面取决于我们的性情和生活态度。能否保持平衡常常是对我们能力的考验,要保持平衡是非常具有挑战性的,尤其是对于小孩子和有成功目标的人。我们可能有不同的重点,但家庭需求不能被忽视。



Mabel Kwong
Personality and attitude does play a big part in how we go about managing both work and play, and also if we feel content – sometimes you can say it all depends on perspective.

性格和态度在我们如何管理工作和娱乐中起着很大的作用,也在我们是否感到满足中起着很大的作用——有时你可以说这完全取决于看待事物的角度。

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